A genetic model of the evolutionary transition from cosexuality to dioecy suggests, however, that linkage may often be necessary from the outset Charlesworth and Charlesworth, a. This bias likely results from XCI spreading into the PAR on the inactive X Xi in females, but increased expression from the Y-linked genes in males could also contribute.
For the remainder, inter-tissue variability in XCI-escape was observed.
James M. Takagi N. Introduction: why are plant sex chromosomes of particular interest?
These iPSCs could potentially be screened using a multi-omics approach for differences in transcription, translation and metabolism  to characterise cell autonomous sexual dimorphism in the stem cell population. Outliers were removed. Cell Genet. Plath K.
This sexually antagonistic enrichment of male-biased genes on the Z-chromosome would be a restrictive force against a general upregulation of Z-linked genes in females. Furthermore, escapee expression from the Xi was on average only one-third of the level of expression from the active X Xa .
Before running the analysis, batch effects were detected and removed. With the availability of molecular techniques, we may now hope to understand more about how sex chromosomes evolve. In Drosophila , this complex likely regulates X-chromosome hyperactivation in males the heterogametic sex by mediating transcription activity e.