We used randomised controlled trial filters as appropriate. The seventh study assessed the effectiveness of two antipsychotics benperidol and chlorpromazine versus placebo. Primary outcome Sexual recidivism as measured by reconviction, self report, or caution Not reported within this study.
The rationale for adding the outcomes asterisked above was based on research concerning dynamic risk factors in sex offending. This may be due to a number of factors involving typical characteristics of sex offenders, including denial, cognitive distortion, and antisocial attitudes Hansonas well as the intrinsic consequences of the use of antilibidinal medication, such as stigma, and psychological effects such as perceived demasculinisation Langevin
We searched reference lists of included studies for additional relevant trials along with the reference lists of reviews. Testosterone data are missing from one study Langevinbut this may have been an artefact of measurement issues data were described as "erratic".
Data were collected on "sexually anomalous urges" as defined above by McConaghy We anticipate incorporating its results into the first update of this review. Though anger and anxiety were not specifically measured in this study, investigators note that in common with previous similar studies e.
No language or date restrictions were applied. We identified insufficient comparable trials for subgroup analysis to be possible for this version of the review.
Whilst arousal thus measured was significantly decreased between the baseline and active treatment stage, there were no statistically significant differences between placebo and treatment phases all relevant data are reported as per the published paper, in Table 1.
We contacted study authors for additional information, including details of methods and outcome data. We will draw funnel plots effect size versus standard error if sufficient studies are found. Overall, the quality of the evidence was poor.
Our review retrieved seven small studies with a total of participants, for whom data were available for only Low risk: no participants dropped out or were excluded from treatment; there are some missing data but the reasons for missing data are unlikely to be related to the true outcome; or missing data are balanced in proportion across intervention groups, with similar reasons for missing data across groups.
Data collection and analysis Pairs of authors, working independently, selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Two potential sources of bias other than those recorded above have been identified. Sensitivity analysis We identified insufficient comparable trials for sensitivity analysis to be possible for this version of the review.
One participant allocated to combined treatment was "concerned about his low level of normal sexual interest [and] decided not to have [drug] treatment when informed his plasma testosterone was low.